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In one of the most recently uncovered Ponzi cases, a former hedge-fund manager has pleaded guilty to criminal charges in an investment scam in which he bilked as much as $900-million from investors, including four university endowments. According to investigators, the Paul R. Greenwood and his partner Stephen Walsh spent at least $160-million on mansions, horses, rare books, and an $80,000 collectible teddy bear. Mr. Walsh has pleaded not guilty, and Mr. Greenwood will testify against him at trial.


1. What did the investors find out about their assets?  Explain why this was a bad sign.

2.  What do the articles say could have prevented the university investments in this scheme?

3.  What potential penalties does Mr. Greenwood face?


Fain, Paul. (2010). Hedge-Fund Manager Pleads Guilty to Multimillion-Dollar Swindle of Four Universities. The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 29 (Retrievable online at

Fain, Paul. (2009). Two Universities Seek Answers After $114-Million Vanishes in an Alleged Swindle. The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 5 (Retrievable online at